In October 1993, eighteen experts from ten countries met in Munster, Germany at the German NBC Defence Research Establishment to discuss various aspects of the problem of old chemical munitions and toxic armament wastes. This volume, that conference, and the research project from which both grew were supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. This comprehensive study covers: characteristics of chemical warfare agents and toxic armament wastes, their detoxification,
deterioration and degradation; technical approaches to them; past chemical weapon (CW) production activities; CW disposal and destruction; sea dumping of CW; and legal issues related to old chemical
munitions and toxic armament wastes.