Leading graphene research theorist Mikhail I. Katsnelson systematically presents the basic concepts of graphene physics in this fully revised second edition. The author illustrates and explains basic concepts such as Berry phase, scaling, Zitterbewegung, Kubo, Landauer and Mori formalisms in quantum kinetics, chirality, plasmons, commensurate-incommensurate transitions and many others. Open issues and unsolved problems introduce the reader to the latest developments in the field. New achievements and topics presented include the basic concepts of Van der Waals heterostructures, many-body physics of graphene, electronic optics of Dirac electrons, hydrodynamics of electron liquid and the mechanical properties of one atom-thick membranes. Building on an undergraduate-level knowledge of quantum and statistical physics and solid-state theory, this is an important graduate textbook for students in nanoscience, nanotechnology and condensed matter. For physicists and material scientists working in related areas, this is an excellent introduction to the fast-growing field of graphene science.